Chrysanthemum is one of the most "large" representatives of the Astrov family. This grassy plant in nature has nearly three dozen annual and perennial species, and in the garden culture it is completely represented by hundreds of various varieties and varieties. The flower was cultivated already 2.5 millennia ago, and archaeologists found confirmation of this. Confucius mentioned a bright sunny plant, it was sung by ancient poets and playwrights. And this is not surprising, because the chrysanthemum personifies the main luminary of the Earth - the Sun.
According to studies, a modern garden daisy appeared as a result of crossing small-flowered and large-flowered chrysanthemums from Japan and China, respectively. There is also a version that these sunny garden flowers appeared due to the crossing of Indian and Chinese subspecies of the plant.
Every lover of these charming multi-colored daisies can grow them on their site. Moreover, there are obvious prerequisites for this. Firstly, this culture blooms for a long time and is very magnificent. Secondly, it can play various roles in the flower garden due to its species diversity: chrysanthemums can be planted as border mini plants, as solo specimens, as a great addition to evergreens and even as a background decoration in a large flower garden.
You can fill the entire flower garden or garden with a chrysanthemum, and it would never occur to anyone to say that it looks boring or monotonous. And all because these daisies are large and small, terry or simple, plain or colorful. The color scheme of this culture does not contain a single brief description of the family, because it extends from snow-white to almost black! Chrysanthemums bloom in spring, summer and autumn. If cultivation is carried out in a conservatory or a greenhouse, then you can enjoy flowering all year round.
Classification of Chrysanthemums
Despite the fact that the flower culture has been cultivated for a long time, there is no single classification for this plant. There are several systems that are used to define a class:
- Chinese includes 10 classes, which differ in terms of flowering, structure and size of flowers;
- French and German almost completely repeat Chinese;
- English distinguishes 15 classes that take into account, in addition to the timing of flowering and the structure of inflorescences, is wintering chrysanthemum or not;
- the American system is similar to the English.
Chrysanthemums: care and reproduction (video)
Types of chrysanthemums are determined by several signs, which do not always make it clear what plants or their inflorescences look like:
- annual and perennial are distinguished by their ability to winter (variations - wintering and non-wintering, wintering in open ground or greenhouses);
- in terms of flowering - early, middle and late (option - spring, summer, autumn);
- by structure and size of the bush - bushy and grassy, large, medium and mini;
- by the size of inflorescences - large-flowered, medium-flowered and small-flowered (the second name of small-flowered chrysanthemums is Korean);
- as inflorescences - terry, simple, semi-double.
In addition, chrysanthemums are divided into subspecies such as keeled, field (sowing) and crown.
Grow this culture under the power of most gardeners. Caring for flowers is easy enough, and with special care they will delight the eye with the brightness of colors all summer and autumn, up to severe frosts.
The most popular varieties: description and characteristics
There are several thousand varieties of chrysanthemums. There are very unusual combinations of shapes, sizes and colors of petals and branches of these charming relatives of daisies. Particularly beautiful and therefore popular varieties, the names of which are heard by many gardeners, are presented in the table.
Use in landscape design
The use of chrysanthemums of various varieties and types opens up many perspectives for landscape designers.
Undersized species This culture perfectly fulfills the role of borders in gardens, park areas, flower beds and in individual artistic garden compositions.
Medium-sized varieties look advantageous with equal height flowers - balsam, cosmea, snapdragon and aster. In summer, when other plants bloom, chrysanthemums serve as a seal of the flower garden. In autumn, when daisies begin to bloom magnificently, other flyers already fall asleep or stop flowering. With the help of this flower culture, you can add a juicy bright note to the mixborder, shade the harsh beauty of the stone gardens, bring colors to the area decorated with conifers and lawn.
Cultivation: choice of place, conditions and planting technique
Chrysanthemums are very fond of the sun throughout the day, except in the afternoon, when its rays can harm plants. Therefore, for growing this crop, places that are slightly covered from the sun by rare shrubs, a pergola or a sparse screen of climbing plants are suitable. Representatives of this genus are undemanding to soils, but they need well-drained soil - loose and breathable, but without excess sand.
The most successful cultivation of a culture of any variety is observed on nutritious loams with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. It is important to completely eliminate rotted manure from entering the soil: asters cannot tolerate it! Most chrysanthemum tastes vermicompost derived from plant debris. It is allowed to add complex fertilizers to the soil for flowering plants several hours before planting.
Plants are recommended to be planted in the spring in the soil, warmed to a sufficient depth. Optimal dates can be determined by a simple method: at the dacha in different places (in the sun and in the shade), several pits should be dug at least 20 cm deep. If the soil in them is the same in temperature as on the surface of the earth and not too wet (does not hold dense lump), you can safely dig beds and plant seedlings.
The best time to plant chrysanthemums is a cloudy or rainy day. In such weather, it is better to always transplant the plants or place seedlings in a permanent place. It is preferable to dig not holes, but trenches with a depth of at least 20 cm. Already in them, previously spilled by Kornevin or other root formation stimulants, separate plants are placed.
The landing pattern may be as follows:
- border and undersized varieties and species - 30 x 30 cm;
- medium-sized and bush varieties and species - 30-35 x 40 cm;
- tall varieties and species - 40-45 x 50 cm.
After planting, the plants are watered, pinch the growth point (you need to do this to stimulate branching) and cover the beds with non-woven material - lutrasil or other lightest. They remove it after the plants show signs of growth: young leaves will appear on them, chrysanthemums will cease to fade.
As for transplanting perennial flowers, it is better to do this in the spring, before the rapid growth and formation of buds, once every three years.
Garden Chrysanthemum Care
Culture does not belong to the category of demanding or whimsical. For normal growth and flowering, she needs not so much:
- timely watering;
- periodic top dressing;
- regular loosening and weeding.
Watering the plants is necessary only under the root, because otherwise spots will appear on the leaves and there will be a risk of infection of the bushes with fungal diseases. Water for irrigation should be settled at least a day or rain. Watering frequency - at least three times a week. In this case, the amount of water should be 2 liters per tall plant, 1-1.5 liters per medium and short. Immediately after watering, the soil must be loosened and cleaned of weeds.
To reduce the amount of watering and restrain the growth of weeds, flower beds can be mulched with wood chips or mowed and sun-dried siderata.
Chrysanthemums need to be fed at least once a month, alternating organic and mineral fertilizers:
- the first feeding is carried out 4-6 weeks after planting with ammonium nitrate;
- second feeding - 2-3 weeks after the first infusion of weeds with the addition of nitrogen fertilizers;
- the third feeding is carried out 3-4 weeks after the previous phosphorus-potassium fertilizer with trace elements;
- the fourth feeding is carried out after another 2-3 weeks with an infusion of herbs with the addition of potassium, phosphorus and bird droppings (in the form of fermented infusion);
- subsequent feeding is carried out with complex mineral fertilizer for garden flowers.
Important rule! It is better not to give plants nutrients, especially nitrogen, than to overfeed them at the expense of flowering and preparation for winter.
Propagation of garden chrysanthemums
Plants can be propagated in several ways, each of which is applicable to certain types of garden chrysanthemums:
- the seed method is ideal for annuals, for perennials it is used for breeding;
- cuttings suitable for perennials;
- division of the bush is used for the reproduction of perennials.
Chrysanthemum seeds can be planted in the ground or in seedlings. In the first case, sowing is carried out at the end of May, when the soil warms up. Seeds are placed in wells spilled with warm water for 3-5 pieces, lightly sprinkled with soil and covered with a film. A week later, when the shoots appear, the film cover is changed to non-woven material, and after the appearance of 2-4 real leaves on the seedlings, they are removed. After that, one plant is left in the wells, and the extra ones are transplanted to another place.
Cuttings are also carried out in spring time, but only when the bush releases strong enough shoots. To get high-quality planting material, you need to cut branches that grow from the root, but not lateral. The lower end of the cuttings is treated with a root stimulant and placed in a school with nutritious, loose and moist soil at an angle of 40-45 degrees. Within 2-3 weeks, it is recommended to keep the cuttings in bright light at a temperature of at least 15 degrees, and constantly moisten the soil. During this time, roots should appear on them. As soon as they grow to 3-5 cm, plants can be planted in a permanent place.
Spring transplantation of old (more than three years) chrysanthemums is an excellent occasion to divide the bush. To do this, the rhizomes of plants purified from clods of soil are separated by secateurs, leaving several buds on each part. Immediately after this, they can be planted in a permanent place.
Chrysanthemums: Division and Planting (video)
To grow charming multi-colored daisies, which sometimes do not at all resemble the appearance of their ancestors, is quite simple. Even with the most basic care, they will reward the grower with a riot of colors that will delight the eye until the first snow.